Behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence is considered along with accounts of the cognitive impairments observed and implications of this evidence for theories of healthy cognition. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us. Laterality is indicted by R (right) in (A). Treisman A. This disorder, one of the most clinically dramatic in neurology, is characterized by the inability of the patient to orient towards, respond to, or report on, stimuli on the contralesional side of space32. The main causes of confusional states can be divided into six major classes, which are listed in Table 1. Keywords: visuospatial working memory, unilateral spatial neglect, representational neglect, Alzheimer’s disease, frontal lobe damage, brain damage, Robert H. Logie, Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. In: Mesulam M-M. (ed) Principles of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology, 2nd edn. Journal of Attention Disorders (JAD) focuses on basic and applied science concerning attention and related functions in children, adolescents, and adults. In: Gazzaniga MS. (ed) The Cognitive Neurosciences. Patients in a confusional state are usually disoriented and their memory is impaired. Conduct disorders are characterized by aggressive behavior, repetitive behavior with temper tantrums, lying, stealing, use of dangerous weapons, and other unacceptable behavior. a lack of awareness for the neglected hemispace, patients will never directly complain of this deficit although it is frequently noted by care-givers. Kastner S, Ungerleider LG. Presumably, similar competitive interactions occur in other sensory cortices. In a single patient study, a SPECT scan demonstrated right parieto-occipital hypoperfusion in a delirious patient2,30. The focus of this chapter will be on the clinical aspects of attention including anatomy, cognitive neuropsychology, disorders, and functional imaging evidence for the role of attention in cognition. What exactly an organism is selecting will depend on the task being performed. 1 Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. •A confusional state is arguably the most important attentional disorder to diagnose, as its presence usually indicates an underlying acute medical condition. At times, the deficits associated with neglect are less dramatic and may only be apparent when the patient is asked to perform more specific tests such as bisecting lines or searching for targets among a set of irrelevant stimuli. Attention covers a wide range of different concepts, variously referred to as spatial attention, divided attention, sustained attention, focused attention, visual attention, covert mental attention, inhibition of attention, and many others. Given the importance of attention to sensory and cognitive processing, it is not surprising that attentional disorders are among the most common and most devastating neurological conditions. DAMP—deficits in attention, motor control and perception—is a controversial psychiatric concept conceived by Christopher Gillberg.Though minor cases of DAMP are roughly defined as a combination of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and a pervading attention deficit, severe cases are seen to exhibit 5 properties of DAMP: Problems of attention, gross and fine motor skills, … Despite these shortcomings of these models, both accurately characterise the cortical and subcortical brain regions associated with top-down attentional behaviours. In the case of bottom-up attentional competition, other anatomical regions might include those involved with motor planing (e.g. A significant percentage of children with attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid, associated problems, such as learning disabilities, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and internalizing disorders. Nick V. Hammond, John H. Gruzelier, Laterality, Attention and Rate Effects in the Auditory Temporal Discrimination of Chronic Schizophrenics: The Effect of Treatment with Chlorpromazine, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10.1080/14640747808400657, 30, 1, (91-103), (2018). Finally, the controlled aspects of attention refer to behaviour in which attention to one activity is stopped so that attention can be directed to another stimulus. Neuroanatomy of visual attention. Only a few recent studies have been able to examine directly the deficits of neglect and extinction with functional imaging technology. In: Boller F, Grafman J. It is important to note that basic sensory or motor disorders are not part of the neglect syndrome, although they may be present. In addition, only Mesulam's model comments on how neuronal responses might be affected by attention15. In a study of 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, six were found to have a delirium based on clinical examination30. Together, these regions comprise one part of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS). Decision and Stress. The preparation of this manuscript was supported by NIA grant AG00940. 5A). The term psychopathology can also refer to the manifestation of a psychological disorder. London: Academic Press, 1971. Adapted from Kinomura et al8 with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Attention further modulates the response of a region when the appropriate stimulus appears29. Imaging studies discussed are primarily functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, some evidence will be provided from the time-honoured clinical method of lesion studies. Particular emphasis is given to selected aspects of visual attention. The approach taken in this chapter is that while attention is not a unitary concept, it does represent a cohesive set of processes, which serve to enhance sensory, motor and cognitive processing. Spontaneous Attention: internal motivation and sentiments Volitional Attention: It is also called voluntary attention. All Rights Reserved. Domain specific attention deficits have been produced in normal individuals using tasks based on the concept of inattentional stimulus processing. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was until recently thought to be a condition of childhood which remitted before adulthood. 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