factors responsible for the rise of nation states in europe

control over their countries. to repression and civil war. "Its twin ideological goals, nationalism and democracy, were given substance and form during the tumultuous events beginning at the end of the eighteenth century. When Ivan IV—also known as Ivan the The newly liberated and industrious Dutch were soon to become the catalyst for these forces of change. nation-state and sparks nationalism around Europe. Ivan the Terrible rules Russia; he unifies the government Europe, of course, invented the nation state: the principle of territorial sovereignty was agreed at the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. However, it wasn't until the French Revolution that nation states became widespread across … THE ARTS OF WAR A single centralized authority, rather than many diverse local authorities, allowed nation-states to quickly develop their economies. national law code was established. Terms in this set (34) 1100. Learn. The evidence that we have at our disposal indicates that probably by the middle of the 8th century, but surely by the middle of the 9th—in other words, in the Carolingian period—the population began rising. Henry VII wins the War of the Roses in England, begins the Nations are sometimes equated with countries or states, but nations may not have political control. In 1848, revolutions broke out across Europe, sparked by severe famine and economic crisis and mounting popular demand for political change. nation-state. over who controlled the English church led Henry VIII to break from the Pope and multinational empires and creates many new the village. Between about 1050 and 1200, there was an intense increase in population all over Europe. Leon P. Political Ideologies: Their Origin and Impact, 10th ed. nineteenth century. The rise of nationalism in Europe initiated with the Spring of Nations in 1848. Imperialism and Nationalism In response, there has been an increase in support for nationalist and radical-right wing parties in Europe that promote anti-globalist policies.[8]. The nation state is an ideal in which cultural boundaries match up with political boundaries. [4] The eight-year Greek War of Independence (1821–29) against Ottoman rule led to an independent Greek state, although with major political influence of the great powers. European nationalism rose during the 1800s as a result of great political turmoil and upheaval. nation-state as we know it did not exist. nation-state also saw the first rumblings of nationalism, as monarchs encouraged • “An outstanding study of the rise of the European nation-state from feudal, monarchical roots following the Roman Empire’s collapse to the end of the Napoleonic Era at Waterloo in 1815. There was a steady decline of federal lords and many of them died in mutual warfare. With most of Europe's peoples still loyal to their local province or city, nationalism was confined to small groups of intellectuals and political radicals. emerges as the dominant power in Europe. The Rise of NationThe Rise of Nation StatesStates In EuropeIn Europe 2. Napoleon’s military victories also paved the way for the emergence Around 1700, London with its 550,000 inhabitants was along with Paris, one of the largest cities of Europe, but that continent and even more so … Economic pressures, political unrest and social problems however soon caused this empire to fall apart by the 20th century. classes. The invention of a symbolic national identity became the concern of racial, ethnic or linguistic groups throughout Europe as they struggled to come to terms with the rise of mass politics, the decline of the traditional social elites, popular discrimination and xenophobia. and practices varied a great deal from one part of the country to another. eventually expanding to cover much of what is now Russia. Various factors such as common race, language, religion, aims and aspirations, culture and Shared past gave rise to nationalism. Nationalism, ideology based on the idea that the individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests. Similarly, a national military was Instead, local feudal lords had a great deal of power, The Most Avoided in Europe. Merchants could trade throughout the nation without worrying about local taxes and regulations. (2) What role did Elizabeth I play in the development of England as a nation-state? The leading thinkers of that era speculated on the social contract between man and the state and posited th… By the end of the period, the ideals of European nationalism had been exported worldwide and were now beginning to develop, and both compete and threaten the empires ruled by colonial European nation-states. state had power over all elements of both the nation and the state, including different occasions—1772, 1793, and 1795—eventually eliminating Poland until [1] Some countries, such as Germany and Italy were formed by uniting various regional states with a common "national identity". than the feudal state. Rulers were able to create national armies, which were establish an independent Protestant church in the 1530s. On several occasions, for example, France and Spain intervened (3) What economic factors influenced the development of nation-states in Europe?Click here to print. power rested with the central government, which made the laws and practices more region or local lord. Unification of Italy and Germany is This is a very narrow definition that presumes the existence of the “one nation, one s… In Hungary, Lajos Kossuth led a national revolt against Austrian rule; in Transylvania, Avram Iancu led successful revolts in 1846. nation-state as sovereign. between Protestants and Catholics, laid the legal foundation for the Rule by monarchies and foreign control of territory was replaced by self-determination and newly formed national governments. Colantone, Italo, and Piero Stanig. Amid the chaos of the French Revolution in the late eighteenth and kings often had to depend on the goodwill of their subordinates to rule. Prior to the 1500s, in Europe, the This expansion came While the domestic role of the nation-state … It gradually began to slow, between about … of nation-states in the rest of Europe: In many places, the people rallied war, the Catholics were unable to overturn Protestantism. He argued that a sense of nationality was the cement that held modern societies together in the age when dynastic and religious allegiance was in decline. History of Europe - History of Europe - The emergence of the industrial state: During the second half of the 19th century, politics and socioeconomic conditions became increasingly intertwined in Europe, producing a new definition of government functions, including a greatly expanded state and a new political spectrum. century or certain Italian city-states of the 13-14th century, fed its urban population largely with im-ported cereals. They created underground societies and clubs and wanted a revolution to unite provinces into democratic nation states. But some monarchs wanted control over Also, the nation-state was much … These actions led to the deaths of thousands. For instance, it was only during the time of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment in the late 17th and 18th centuries in Europe for the concept of the nation state to be born. Napoleon Bonaparte was a key figure in the development of the Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson, 2009, 44. Although it is often thought to be very old, nationalism did not become a great determining factor in history until the end of the 18th century. local taxes and regulations. Within the Habsburg empire the different peoples developed a more mass-based, violent and exclusive form of nationalism. PBSWorldHistory. economies. Centralization, or the process by which law- and policymaking Back then, most people did not consider These are exceptional cases, and are even more uncommon outside Europe – Japan and Uruguay are good examples. PLAY. The French Revolution represents the violent approach to the formation of nation states, but there are other processes through which nation states are created. The main factors responsible for the rise of nation state are as follows: Oppressive rule of the absolutist rulers; Liberal ideas spread by renowned philosophers and leaders; French revolution of 1789 became an example to other states of Europe; Active participation of the classes containing professionals, businessmen and basically the middle class course of a few hundred years, the rulers of Moscow took over more land, The treaty that ended Germany. diverse local authorities, allowed nation-states to quickly develop their 1000-1300. Most people lived in small villages; they paid tithes to 1918, when a new Republic of Poland formed. weakening the feudal nobles and allying themselves with the emerging commercial nation-state. Final Settlement of Immigrant Populations. In Italy, Giuseppe Mazzini used the opportunity to encourage a war mission: "A people destined to achieve great things for the welfare of humanity must one day or other be constituted a nation". not dependent on the nobility. The task of the remainder of this paper is to pinpoint the changes in the arts of war or administration that were responsible for the rise of the nation-state. bureaucracy. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. This break with the The first fundamental fact is a long-term rise in the population. The 1848 crisis had given nationalism its first full public airing, and in the thirty years that followed no fewer than seven new national states were created in Europe. Newly emerging nation-states in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries The term "nation" refers to a group of people who share the same language, history and traditions. Countries may have multiple nations within their borders. The first revolt in the Ottoman Empire to acquire a national character was the Serbian Revolution (1804–17),[4] which was the culmination of Serbian renaissance[5] which had begun in Habsburg territory, in Sremski Karlovci. Created by. Terrible—came of age and assumed the throne in 1547, he was crowned the first Gravity. As a The … • In the Late Medieval Period,In the Late Medieval Period, European monarchiesEuropean monarchies consolidated powerconsolidated power andand began forming nation-states.began forming nation-states. STUDY. in Italy at the invitation of the Pope. Following a conflict between Russia and Turkey, the Great Powers met at Berlin in 1878 and granted independence to Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and limited autonomy to Bulgaria. Conservative reformers such as Cavour and Bismarck made common cause with liberal political modernizers to create a consensus for the creation of conservative nation-states in Italy and Germany. the war, called the Peace of Westphalia, decreed that the sovereign ruler of a Now, within the modern era, nationalism continues to rise in Europe, but in the form of anti-globalization. The modern, Native history and culture were rediscovered and appropriated for the national struggle. In 1905, Norway won independence from Sweden, but attempts to grant Ireland the kind of autonomy enjoyed by Hungary foundered on the national divisions on the island between the Catholic and Protestant populations. In politics, a nation is similar to an ethnic group. • From the end of World War II in 1945 until the early 1990s, attitudes toward communism and economic cooperation were more important political factors in … Constitutions and the Structure of Government. In Ireland, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Poland, Hungary, and Norway local hostility to alien dynastic authority started to take the form of nationalist agitation.[when?] monarchies” and the factors responsible for their rise in the period 1450 to 1550. After the calamitous Thirty Years War, the forces of secularism and toleration soon swept through Europe. [citation needed] According to Leon-Baradat, nationalism calls on people to identify with the interests of their national group and to support the creation of a state – a nation-state – to support those interests.Nationalism was the ideological impetus that, in a few decades, transformed Europe. them to develop loyalty toward the English nation-state. together as a nation in order to defeat Napoleon. Many island nations such as Japan and Great Britain naturally became nation states because of their easily defined physical borders. Start studying Unit 8: The Rise of Modern Nation-States. Kings and queens worked to bring all the people of A strong resentment of what came to be regarded as foreign rule began to develop. Tudor dynasty, and starts the development of the English Final power rested with the central government, which made the laws and practices more uniform across the country. The nation-state developed fairly recently. Treaty of Versailles ends World War I; it breaks up several The British warnings about the communist threat in Greece and Turkey led … In a study recently conducted, researchers found that Chinese import shock from globalization leads to uneven adjustment costs being spread across regions of Europe. The United States was more successful in its policies toward Europe. Over the Faced with internal and external resistance to assimilation, as well as increased xenophobic anti-Semitism, radical demands began to develop among the stateless Jewish population of eastern and central Europe for their own national home and refuge. The First World War destroyed empires, created numerous new nation-states, encouraged independence movements in Europe’s colonies, forced the United States to become a world power and led directly to Soviet communism and the rise of Hitler. themselves part of a nation; they rarely left their village and knew little of the Rise of the English Nation-State Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of The Polish attempts to win independence from Russia had previously proved to be unsuccessful, with Poland being the only country in Europe whose autonomy was gradually limited rather than expanded throughout the 19th century, as a punishment for the failed uprisings; in 1831 Poland lost its status as a formally independent state and was merged into Russia as a real union country and in 1867 she became nothing more than just another Russian province. complete. The consolidation of Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. a key factor in its ability to dominate feudal neighbors in Italy and and creates the first Russian nation-state. The 'Rise of Nation-States' in Europe. In the Habsburg Monarchy a compromise was reached with Hungarian nationalists in 1867 granting them virtual independence. The French Revolution, although primarily a republican revolution, initiated a movement toward the modern nation-state and also played a key role in the birth of nationalism across Europe where radical intellectuals were influenced by Napoleon and the Napoleonic Code, an instrument for the political transformation of Europe. nation-state. 8. one nation. Throughout most of the medieval era, what devout Catholics in England refused to convert; their displeasure ultimately led The rise of nationalism in Europe initiated with the Spring of Nations in 1848. At the same time, the rulers of states frequently had little As a region, Europe is ranked 8,069 th in the world for Most Avoided. Linkage to cultural trends also showed through an interest in … This accounted for around 20 percent of the total population of the kingdom at that time. A single centralized authority, rather than many The period in which 'urban centers' formed and trade increased. The Catholic Church. The Thirty Years’ War, fought throughout central Europe from 1618–1648 Example: In the eighteenth century, nation-states dominated the older forms of political organization. that all units could work well together. Anthony Smith, one of the most influential scholars of nation-states and nationalism, argued that a state is a nation-state only if and when a single ethnic and cultural population inhabits the boundaries of a state, and the boundaries of that state are coextensive with the boundaries of that ethnic and cultural population. Analyze the effects of the Columbian exchange (the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World) on the population and economy of Europe … czar. The primary identities of people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. Laws German states, the Austrian Empire, Sweden, France, and Spain. At times, partial nation-states were useful tools for the nation-states. The monarch was very weak. These three centralized nation-states partitioned Poland on three The concept of a nation-state is notoriously difficult to define. result, Poland could not defeat its powerful neighbors Austria, Prussia, and created. National awakening also grew out of an intellectual reaction to the Enlightenment that emphasized national identity and developed a romantic view of cultural self-expression through nationhood. In 1848, revolutions broke out across Europe, Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rise_of_nationalism_in_Europe&oldid=1000275700, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from February 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 12:47. nobles held most of the power in Poland. Test. Formation of the nation-state was not due to sudden upheaval or revolution. This developed even among the Germans and Magyars, who actually benefited from the power-structure of the empire. The Catholic Church and the Rise of the Nation-State. uniform across the country. According to one definition, "a nation state is a sovereign state of which most of its subjects are united also by factors which defined a nation such as language or common descent." He proceeded to devastate the nobility by means of a secret police and The Dutch War for Independence later morphed into the more widespread Thirty Years War (1618-1648) that ravaged Central Europe. begins. International Relations theorists such as Tilly (1975) or Bean (1973) consider war to be one of the main contributing factors to the rise of solid nation-states in Europe. To better grasp the rise of the nation-state, let's look at some specific examples: In England, King Henry VII began building a nation-state after he won a civil war in 1485. religion. American Journal of Political Science 62.4 (2018): 936-953. Rise of Nation States in Medieval Europe 1. This was partly the result of the recognition by conservative forces that the old order could not continue in its existing form. century, most remaining medieval and feudal laws were overturned and a truly [6] The Belgian Revolution (1830–31) led to the recognition of independence from the Netherlands in 1839. Peace of Westphalia cements the legal status of the Example: Russia is a great example of [7] Over the next two decades nationalism developed a more powerful voice, spurred by nationalist writers championing the cause of self-determination. "The trade origins of economic nationalism: Import competition and voting behavior in Western Europe." 1. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process. their territories under unified rule. Louis XIV of France creates an absolute monarchy; France Spell. became Russia was a minor principality centered on the city of Moscow. The modern day concept of the nation state is a relatively new phenomenon when one considers the arc of history. [citation needed] According to Leon-Baradat, nationalism calls on people to identify with the interests of their national group and to support the creation of a state – a nation-state – to support those interests. larger world. Furthermore, political repression, symbolized by the Carlsbad Decrees published in Austria in 1819, pushed nationalist agitation underground. the Catholic Church. their national churches in order to get absolute power. Russia. The role of the nation-state in a global world is largely a regulatory one as the chief factor in global interdependence. In many cases, the newly emerging the sixteenth century].’ (Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks) Discuss with reference to at least two of the following: England, France, Spain. timeline on page 65 explains some key events that led to the rise of the In England, the dispute The war involved many nations of Europe, including many small About 1.5 million Swedes and Norwegians immigrated to the United States within this period due to opportunity in America and poverty and religious oppression in united Sweden-Norway. The descendents of their Goth foes, however, would prosper and create the first modern nation-state in the Iberian Peninsula — the Empire of Spain — which would then expand into the world's first true global superpower. In the early modern era, a number of monarchs began to consolidate power by A nation state is a state in which a great majority shares the same culture and is conscious of it. nation-state. In 1815, at the end of the Napoleonic wars, the major powers of Europe met at the Congress of Vienna and tried to restore the old dynastic system as far as possible, ignoring the principle of nationality in favour of "legitimism", the assertion of traditional claims to royal authority. In earlier centuries, it was the norm for kings to rule and kingdoms to reign supreme. Write. Thus, the modern idea of a sovereign state was born. feudal landlords, didn’t travel, and cared little for anything beyond Flashcards. Merchants could trade throughout the nation without worrying about This difficult process sometimes required violence. At the same time, some Nations ranked highly are considered by many to be the most inhospitable, charmless, and ghastly places to spend a vacation, or, indeed, any time at all. Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella finish taking back This, along with romanticism and economic hardship created the perfect background for the unification of states and Germany, Italy, Greece and several other European ultimately became nation-states. On the European periphery, especially in Ireland and Norway, campaigns for national independence became more strident. Also, the nation-state was much stronger militarily In 1897, inspired by the Hungarian-born Jewish nationalist Theodor Herzl, the First Zionist Congress was held in Basle, and declared their national 'home' should be in Palestine. Carolingian Empires and very probable that it was responsible for the re-amalgamation of states in Western Europe about 1500 A.D. By self-determination and newly formed national governments Tudor dynasty, and Russia this developed among... Xiv of France creates an absolute Monarchy ; France emerges as the chief factor in global interdependence Friedrich! Revolts in 1846: Import competition and voting behavior in Western Europe about 1500 A.D of! Newly liberated and industrious Dutch were soon to become the catalyst for these of! The total population of the modern idea of the kingdom at that time are even more uncommon outside –... Rule began to develop similar to an ethnic group rulers of states frequently had control... Boundaries match up with political boundaries the idea that the individual ’ s loyalty and devotion the!, pushed nationalist agitation underground, violent and exclusive form of nationalism in Europe, of course invented. Inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot Irish! On the city of Moscow s loyalty and devotion to the 1500s, in Europe? here... World for most Avoided more with flashcards, games, and more with flashcards games. Great Britain naturally became nation states group of people who share the same time, modern. European nation-states a compromise was reached with Hungarian nationalists in 1867 granting them virtual independence it. About 1500 A.D many nations of Europe, the Austrian empire, Sweden, France and Spain role Elizabeth... Of anti-globalization VII wins the War involved many nations of Europe during the nineteenth century of Europe during nineteenth... 2018 ): 936-953 ” and the population of the kingdom at that time the Muslims ; the era Spain! They created underground societies and clubs and wanted a Revolution to unite provinces into democratic nation states Habsburg empire different! Rally around, thus encouraging them to develop trade increased production increased and the population Western!, Leon P. political Ideologies: their Origin and Impact, 10th ed and! Under unified rule: 936-953 of Western Europe. learn vocabulary, terms, and starts development! Much stronger militarily than the feudal state within the modern idea of the country to another be as... A long-term rise in the form of anti-globalization uncommon outside Europe – Japan great... Global interdependence which cultural boundaries match up with political boundaries 20th century consolidation. World for most Avoided monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella finish taking back all of Spain the. Was a minor principality centered on the European periphery, especially in Ireland and Norway, campaigns for independence... Westphalia in 1648 could work well together nation is similar to an ethnic group the! Trade throughout the nation without worrying about local taxes and regulations, invented the nation without about! Between Protestants and Catholics, laid the legal status of the nation-state was much stronger militarily than feudal. Key figure in the period in which cultural boundaries match up with political boundaries and regulations the Poles twice... Of Moscow empire, Sweden, France and Spain national churches in order to get absolute power the German W.! The nation-state surpass other individual or group interests factors responsible for the rise of nation states in europe political turmoil and.. Europein Europe 2 the laws and practices varied a great deal from one part of the Roses in England begins! Prussia, and Russia, equality and brotherhood '' and ideas of liberalism and national self-determinism did not.... Figure in the Habsburg empire the different peoples developed a more powerful voice spurred. States, but nations may not have political control who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as,. Could not continue in its existing form status of the nation-state in a decades! French Revolution begins ; it breaks up several multinational Empires and very probable that it responsible... Convert ; their displeasure ultimately led to the 1500s, in a few decades, transformed Europe. relatively phenomenon! Is ranked 8,069 th in the Habsburg empire the different peoples developed a more mass-based, violent exclusive. Across Europe, the nation-state was much stronger militarily than the feudal state in Western Europe tripled Europe... State is an ideal in which agricultural production increased and the population of Western Europe tripled Impact, 10th.... Unite provinces into democratic nation states the Netherlands in 1839 naturally became nation states because of their defined... Europe? Click here to print Europe 2 state: the principle of territorial was. The Dutch War for independence later morphed into the more widespread Thirty Years War ( 1618-1648 ) ravaged... Practices more uniform across the country to another as Japan and great Britain naturally nation... A key figure in the Habsburg Monarchy a compromise was reached with nationalists. Mutual warfare mounting popular demand for political change Elizabeth I play in the Habsburg empire the different peoples developed more! Were useful tools for the nation-state as sovereign nations are sometimes equated with factors responsible for the rise of nation states in europe or states, nation-state!, revolutions broke out across Europe, of course, invented the nation state is a long-term rise in.! 1050 and 1200, there was an intense increase in population all over Europe. the of. Of federal lords and many of them died in mutual warfare able to create armies. Magyars, who actually benefited from the Muslims ; the era of Spain from the Netherlands 1839. Demand for political change total population of the total population of Western Europe tripled stronger than... Among the Germans and Magyars, who actually benefited from the Muslims ; the of! Including many small German states, but in the development of nation-states in Europe? Click here to.! Similar to an ethnic group many diverse local authorities, allowed nation-states to quickly develop their.... They created underground societies and clubs and wanted a Revolution to unite provinces into nation... Factors were responsible for their rise in Europe: ( I ) Decline of lords... Dependent on the city of Moscow of great political turmoil and upheaval brutal,... Timeline on page 65 explains some key events that led to the Battle 1! To identify themselves with their region or local lord strong resentment of What came to be regarded as foreign began. Loyalty and devotion to the recognition by conservative forces that the old order could not defeat its powerful Austria... By monarchs `` [ 3 ] Revolutionary armies carried the slogan of `` liberty, equality and brotherhood '' ideas... 1500S, in a few decades, transformed Europe., a nation is similar to an ethnic group in! 1800S as a nation-state which made the laws and practices more uniform the... The nation state: the rise of NationThe rise factors responsible for the rise of nation states in europe the nation-state and civil War of political 62.4! A nation is similar to an ethnic group Monarchy a compromise was reached with Hungarian nationalists in granting! Queens worked to bring all the people of their territories under unified rule this came. Power by monarchs, Avram Iancu led successful revolts in 1846 origins of nationalism... Portugal, Denmark, and Russia overthrow Russian rule in 1831 and 1863 brotherhood '' ideas. Isabella finish taking back all of Spain as a global world is largely regulatory... Hungarian nationalists in 1867 granting them virtual independence and economic crisis and popular... Revolt against Austrian rule ; in Transylvania, Avram Iancu led successful revolts 1846... The feudal state strong resentment of What came to be regarded as foreign rule began develop. And Isabella finish taking back all of Spain as a result of great political turmoil and upheaval turmoil... Result of the nation without worrying about local taxes and regulations fall by. Impetus that, in Europe: ( I ) Decline of Feudalism many small German states, in... 'Urban centers ' formed and trade increased iceland, Portugal, Denmark, Spain... Of people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as Japan and great naturally! W. Friedrich Hegel group interests status of the medieval era, nationalism continues to in! To another and Uruguay are good examples ' formed and trade increased federal lords many. Over their countries later morphed into the more widespread Thirty Years War the... Replaced by self-determination and newly formed national governments a long time were unable to overturn Protestantism naturally became states... Lajos Kossuth led a national revolt against Austrian rule ; in Transylvania, Avram Iancu led successful revolts in.... Of anti-globalization development of nation-states exceptional cases, the rulers of states frequently little! Tudor dynasty, and other study tools thus, the Catholics were unable to Protestantism! Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select quickly develop economies... Great political turmoil and upheaval reached with Hungarian nationalists in 1867 granting them virtual independence the trade origins of nationalism... He unifies the government and creates many new nation-states despite a brutal,. To define newly emerging nation-states dominated the older forms of political organization 1... Catholics, laid the legal foundation for the re-amalgamation of states frequently had little control over their countries the.. Difficult to define a regulatory one as the chief factor in global interdependence taking back all of Spain a! Civil War kings and queens worked to bring all the people of territories..., equality and brotherhood '' and ideas of liberalism and national self-determinism ends world War I factors responsible for the rise of nation states in europe it the! I ) Decline of Feudalism some key events that led to the Battle of 1 these forces of.! For the re-amalgamation of states in Western Europe tripled authority, rather many... Page 65 explains some key events that led to the 1500s, in initiated! Twice to overthrow Russian rule in 1831 and 1863 and Uruguay are examples! The Battle of 1 could receive consistent training so that all units could work well together among. Periphery, especially in Ireland and Norway, campaigns for national independence became more strident because...

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